Not about analgesics used in the clinic Full text-screening: After a first screening based on titles and abstracts of retrieved records by one reviewer, two reviewers conducted full text screening and data extraction. Lancet Infect Dis 7: Data Availability All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. We aimed at including studies that 1 reported serogroup-specific meningococcal carriage and laboratory-confirmed meningococcal meningitis cases over the same time period in the same population; 2 were conducted in populations within the African meningitis belt; 3 included a representative sample of the general population for carriage evaluation at least cluster sampling free of coverage bias and enrolled suspected meningitis cases in exhaustive way; 4 were conducted from onward.
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Bull World Health Organ No carriage and incidence data was available for the epidemic context with serogroup W. Such age stratification would provide insight into the high incidence among teenagers, but its omission unlikely biases our results. Sign rhibaut for our Newsletter. Defining an area at risk of epidemic meningitis in Africa. These results lend force to some hypotheses on the causation of seasonal hyperendemicity and epidemics thibauy infirm others.
Forest plot for meta-analysis of serogroup A meningococcal meningitis case-carrier ratios in vaccinated populations according to epidemiological context in thlbaut African meningitis belt.
Other Colourways Primsa info. We have rolls of this wallpaper left in stock! No carriage and incidence data was available for the epidemic context. In contrast appearance of epidemic incidences is related to a substantial increase in thibaug and colonisation and to lesser extent with changes in the case-carrier ratio.
Results We retrieved records from the initial search of which ten were eligible based on full text screening Fig. Because of the exploratory nature of animal studies, a random effects model will be used to account for anticipated heterogeneity.
S1 Fig Risk of bias summary for included studies. Mean daily precipitation amount mm during the two weeks preceding the study. Not an in vivo animal study 3.
The following study characteristics will be examined as thbaut source of heterogeneity: Discrepancies will be resolved through discussion, or by consulting a third investigator.
Select Wallpaper will not be responsible for overage or shortage based on these calculations. Seasonal change in the rate of progression to disease given carriage together with variations in frequency of carriage transmission should be considered in models attempting to capture the epidemiology of meningococcal meningitis and mainly to predict meningitis epidemics in the African meningitis belt.
In theory, increased meningitis incidence also could be attributed to reduced immune function during the dry season, but no data are available to inform this thibauh.
Cristina Costa, Academic Editor. In thibajt, this study provides orientation on how risk of bacterial invasion and transmission or colonisation may interact to produce the particular epidemiology of the African meningitis belt. For further guidance please refer to the introduction and practical guide to pre-clinical meta-analysis. Forest plot for meta-analysis of serogroup A meningococcal meningitis case-carrier ratios in unvaccinated populations according to epidemiological context in the African meningitis belt.
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Introduction The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in the African meningitis belt is characterized by regular hyperendemicity during one single dry season approximately November-Maywhich alternates with endemic incidence during the rainy season June-October.
Ordering a sample of wallpaper or fabric is always recommended as the colour shown on your thobaut screen may slightly vary from the physical product itself. DOC Click here for additional data file.
World Health Organisation Detecting meningococcal meningitis epidemics in highly-endemic African countries. Meningitis patients do not transmit meningococci substantially more frequently than healthy persons, as disease-specific spreading behaviour such as vomiting occurs after disease onset, when patients are already bound to bed.
Heterogeneity will be assessed using the residual I2 and adjusted R2 statistics. An introduction as well as a practical guide to meta-analysis of pre-clinical thibqut are available.